številka / volume 137-138
november / november 1997
letnik / anno XXVII
izkušnje
experiences
vsebina številke
table of contents
Miha Dešman Uvodnik
Editor’s Note
Alessio Prinčič, Ado Furlan Gino Valle, intervju
Interview with Gino Valle
Uroš Lobnik Hiša, sadovnjak
House, Orchard
Peter Rezman, Miha Dešman Nande Korpnik v Velenju
Nande Korpnik in Velenje
Aleš Vodopivec Paradigme 60. let
Paradigms of the 60’s
Igor Kebel Proces proti arhitekturi
Case against Architecture
Mika Cimolini Digimall
Digimall
François Chaslin Vrnitev v Sarajevo
Sara Komavec, Nataša Pavlin Izdelovanje podob ali ustvarjanje izkušenj
Producing Images or Creating Experiences
Patrik Schumacher Produkcijski vzorci, 2. del
Productive Patterns, part 2
Aljoša Kolenc Operativnost
Operativity
Miha Kajzelj Alpinska arhitektura
Alpine Architecture
Domenico Potenza Projekti trgov v Rimu
Projects for Roman Squares
Ira Zorko Landar
uvodnik

Kaj je arhitekturna izkušnja? Kaj arhitekturo naredi za arhitekturo? Ali je to izkušnja širše časovnosti - nekakšna izkušnja izkušenj, strukturirana torej kot jezik, ali pa je fenomenološka, torej neposredna čutna in telesna izkušnja? Ali je zgodovina legitimen alibi v post-času? In ali je možna izkušnja čiste materialnosti v predvsem skozi medije prezentiranem svetu?

Ali je mogoče in pametno suspendirati arhitekturno izkušnjo, kot to počne del sodobne arhitekture? Ali je bolje prilagoditi in zmerno popraviti obstoječe modele ali pa arhitektonski koncept zastaviti popolnoma na novo? Začeti iz tabule rase, iz očiščene izkušnje sodobnosti, izključujoč vpliv preteklosti, je seveda utopija, podobna že videnim iz časa herojske moderne. Izhaja iz podmene, da je preteklost le zbirka mrtvih dejstev. Arhitektura “nove novosti” tu stopa v podobno past kot prej postmodernizem, namreč v ideološko motivirano redukcijo. Le-ta mora, če hoče zakriti sledove ideologije, suspendirati tradicionalne vrednote in pomene, da bi iniciirala operacijo dekonstrukcije, kontaminacije, manipulacije, ponovne kreacije in ponovne razpršitve.

Arhitektura se pri iskanju aktualnosti zateka po inspiracijo v umetnost in filozofijo. Vendar je iskanje po drugih disciplinah slej ko prej odsev lastne krize. Vloga filozofije, kot jo je postuliral Althusser, je v odnosu do znanosti (téchne) predvsem to, da jo opozori, kdaj lahko njene običajne “koristne” ideologije postanejo kontraproduktivne, nikakor pa ni njena vloga kakršno koli usmerjanje ali “kazanje poti”. Res je, da so v filozofiji, tako kot v znanosti in umetnosti, določene mode in konjunkture, ki v določenih obdobjih in po določenih elementih sovpadajo, npr. postmodernizem v sedemdesetih, dekonstruktivizem v osemdesetih ali minimalizem v devetdesetih. Vendar mora arhitektura, če hoče obvarovati kulturni aspekt projekta in njegove materializacije, ohraniti neodvisnost in navezanost na lastno jedro. To pa ji lahko uspeva le, če kritično sledi arhitekturni izkušnji, predvsem evropski.

Arhitektura je od svojih začetkov do danes pomenila (pomeni) hkratno obvladovanje vseh meril, od urbanističnega do detajla. Zato je (bil) zanjo značilen določen univerzalizem, tudi v času moderne, ki je bila (in je še) čas specializacij. Vključuje (vključevala je) nepregledno število elementov; funkcijo, konstrukcijo, obliko, tehniko, ekonomičnost, pomen itd. Hkrati pa zahteva (je zahtevala) neko osebno pisavo, ki njeni splošnosti in “znanstvenosti” doda umetniškost in (p)osebnost. Mislim, da se v tem spoju splošnega in posamičnega, norme in njenega umetniškega preseganja, skriva odgovor na vprašanje, kaj arhitekturo naredi za arhitekturo.

Splošni naslov teme te številke pač pomeni, da lahko vanjo stlačimo karkoli. In tudi uvodnik lahko piše o čemerkoli pač že, pa vendar je številka pred vami daleč od poljubnosti ali naključnosti. Predstavlja precizno lestvico konkretnih izkušenj časa, heterogenih, pa vendar konvergirajočih v iskanju koncepta uporabnosti in smisla arhitekturne discipline v iztekajočem se tisočletju. Gino Valle brezkompromisno in vešče, kot pritiče eni redkih velikih osebnosti današnje arhitekture, komentira sodobno arhitekturno situacijo v Italiji. Mariborski arhitekt Janko Zadravec je realiziral za naše razmere eksemplarno stavbo sadjarskega inštituta, ki pomeni prenos aktualne izkušnje najboljše srednjeevropske arhitekture na naše ozemlje in je dokument štajerske kulturne istovetnosti. Nande Korpnik na avtobiografski način govori o svoji izkušnji gradnje v Velenju. Predstavljeni sta dve njegovi realizaciji, ki nadaljujeta izgradnjo Velenja kot mesta moderne. Da je telo vedno del človekove izkušnje, tudi prostorske, nas opozori umetnik Morbin. Igor Kebel v svojem prispevku tematizira mutacijo procesa planiranja prostorskih struktur - arhitekture in urbanizma - od dogmatskega vnaprejšnjega določevanja k procesualni interaktivnosti dinamičnih sistemov. Ob tem mlada arhitektka Mika Cimolini predstavi projekt Digimall - diplomsko delo, ki v oscilaciji med medijsko in fizično realnostjo konstruira izkušnjo shoping centra kot vzorčnega primera generične arhitekture.

Objavljamo nadaljevanje teksta Patrika Schumacherja o produktivnih vzorcih kot agentih prestrukturiranja arhitekturne discipline. Tragično metafiziko horrorja vacui vpelje Aljoša Kolenc v svojem komentarju operativnosti kot arhitekturnega koncepta. Izkušnja vojne, čeprav nam je časovno in prostorsko blizu, je vendar v naši zavesti tako potlačena, da nas mora nanjo opozoriti znameniti francoski arhitekturni teoretik in kritik François Chaslin. Objavljamo odlomek iz njegove najnovejše knjige, ki jo je posvetil vojni v Bosni. Alpinsko arhitekturo kot izkušnjo gradnje v ekstremnih naravnih razmerah predstavi Miha Kajzelj. Številko kompletirata predstavitev projektov za rimske trge ter zadnja stran, ki jo je kot po navadi pripravil Ira Zorko in ki nas opozarja na temeljno nerazumevanje, ki je vse prepogosto osnova za posege v prostor in v arhitekturne stvaritve.

editorial

What is an architectural experience? What makes architecture be architecture? Is it the experience of the extended time dimension - a kind of experience above all experiences, therefore structured like the language; or is it phenomenological, and therefore directly linked with our senses and body? Is history a legitimate alibi in this post-time? And - is an experience of pure material possible in a world presented mainly through the media?

Is it possible, and is it wise to suspend architectural experience, as is the case in one part of contemporary architecture? Is it better to adapt and moderately adjust the existing models, or to set the architectural concept completely anew? To start from the tabula rasa, from the cleansed experience of contemporaneity, excluding the influence of the past, is of course a utopia, similar to those we had seen in times of heroic Modernism. It is derived from the supposition, that the past is only a collection of dead facts. Here the architecture of “new novelty” is caught in the same trap as post-modernism before that, namely in the ideologically motivated reduction. This reduction, if it wants to hide the traces of ideology, has to suspend traditional values and meanings in order to initiate the operation of deconstruction, contamination, manipulation, second creation and second dispersion. In search of actuality, architecture is seeking inspiration in art and philosophy. But the search in other disciplines is nothing but a reflection of its own crisis. The role of philosophy as defined by Althusser is above all, in the relation towards science (téchne), to draw attention to how its usual “useful” ideologies can become counter-productive; and certainly not to direct or “show the right way”. It is true that philosophy, just like science or art, knows its fashion and conjunctions, which correspond to each other in certain periods and in certain elements, for example post-modernism in the 70’s, deconstructivism in the 80’s and minimalism in the 90’s. Architecture, however, if it wants to preserve the cultural aspect of a project and its materialisation, has to preserve its independence and a connection with its own source. This is only possible if it critically follows architectural experience, especially European experience.

From its beginnings until today, architecture has meant (and still means) a simultaneous mastering of all levels, from urbanism to detail. For this reason it is (was) typical for architecture to have a certain universality, even in the period of modernism which was (and still is) a period of specialisation. Architecture comprises (has comprised) an infinite number of elements; function, construction, form, technology, economy, meaning, etc. At the same time it demands (has demanded) a kind of personal script which added artistic and personal (special) value to its general and “scientific” nature. In my opinion it is in this very merge of the general and the particular, the norm and its artistic surpassing that we can find the answer to the question what makes architecture be architecture.

The general theme of this number therefore means we can put anything in it. And this editor’s letter could be speaking about anything as well, and yet: the number in front of you is far from being optional or coincidental. It presents a precise scale of concrete experiences of time; heterogeneous, but still convergent in search of a concept of application and sense for architecture in the end of millennium. Gino Valle comments, without compromises and aptly, as it should be for one of the few great personalities of contemporary architecture, the present architectural situation in Italy. Architect Janko Zadravec from Maribor realised an exemplary, for our circumstances, building of the Fruit-growing Centre, which means a transplantation of the actual experience of the best central European architecture on our land, and is a document of the cultural identity in Stiria. Nande Korpnik speaks about his experience of building in Velenje in an autobiographic way. We present two of his projects which continue the construction of Velenje as the town of modernism. The artist Morbin reminds us that the body is always a part of human spatial experience. In his article Igor Kebel deals with changes in the process of planning of mountain structures - architecture and urbanism - from the dogmatic defining in advance, to the processed interaction of dynamic systems. The young architect Mika Cimolini presents a diploma project Digimall, which constructs, in oscillation between the media and physical reality, the experience of a shopping centre as a model example of generic architecture.

We present the second part of Patrick Schumacher’s text on productive models as restructuring agents of architectural discipline. The tragic metaphysics of horror vacui is introduced by Aljoša Kolenc in his commentary on operativity as an architectural concept. The experience of war, although close to us in terms of time and space, is still so suppressed in our consciousness, that we have to be reminded of it by the young French architectural theoretician and critic François Chaslin. We present a fragment from his latest book about war in Bosnia. Alpine architecture as built experience in extreme natural conditions is presented by Miha Kajzelj. The number is completed by the presentation of projects for Roman squares, and the last page, as usually prepared by Ira Zorko, reminding us of the fundamental misunderstanding which is all too often a basis for interventions in space and architectural creation.