številka / volume 165-166
december / december 2004
letnik / anno XXXIV
tradicija napredka
tradition of progress
vsebina številke
table of contents
Miha Dešman Uvodnik
Editorial
Nataša Koselj Tradicija napredka
Rok Žnidaršič Metoda projektiranja arhitekta Edvarda Ravnikarja
Jurij Kobe Soba 25
Andrej Hrausky Prenova
Katarina Višnar Moderna in zaton veselja do obrti
Nataša Koselj Isokon
Tina Jelenc Mislec, umetnik, učitelj in arhitekt
Tomaž Ebenspanger Umetnina arhitekture, arhitektura umetnin
Ira Zorko Pismo
The Letter
uvodnik

prihodnost za preteklost

Številka revije ab pred vami je posvečena središčni osebnosti slovenske moderne arhitekture povojnega obdobja - arhitektu, učitelju in mislecu Edvardu Ravnikarju ter njegovim delom. Obravnava genezo in kompleksno zgodovino nastajanja njegove arhitekture, predvsem na primeru Trga revolucije, današnjega Trga republike. Trg je nastal kot zavestno oblikovano novo središče mesta v dialogu s historičnim mestom, pa tudi kot simbolno in politično središče nacije in države.

Od Ravnikarjeve smrti leta 1993 do danes še vedno čakamo na popolno kritično vrednotenje njegovega dela, na pregledno razstavo in monografijo, na trajno ureditev arhivov, na celostno zaščito njegovih del in na njegovo umestitev v zgodovino evropske arhitekture. Res je, da v zadnjih letih narašča zanimanje zanj in zavest o njegovi pomembnosti. Nastajajo posamezne poglobljene študije kot uvod v celostno obravnavo. Dve taki študiji sta povzeti tudi v tej številki. Krepijo se prizadevanja, da bi postalo njegovo delo, kakor je nedavno postalo Plečnikovo, znano mednarodni strokovni in laični javnosti. Eno njegovih najbolj liričnih del - ureditev spominskega kompleksa internirancev na otoku Rabu - je bilo predstavljeno na 9. mednarodni razstavi arhitekture v Benetkah jeseni 2004.

Po drugi strani pa je fizis njegovega dela ogrožen. Posebno žalostno, pa tudi simptomatično je, da je ogrožen tudi kompleks Trga republike v Ljubljani. Pred nedavnim je bil uničen interier banke. Pasaža, lokali in parter so v slabem stanju. Postopno razvrednotenje posameznih ambientov, ob tem pa celo ideje o nadzidavi stolpnic in trgovine Maximarket so nesprejemljivi posegi v integralnost arhitekturne celote.

Najbolj aktualen primer ogroženosti sta interier in fasada knjigarne DZS. Knjigarna DZS je locirana v Ravnikarjevem prizidku k Plečnikovi Uršulinski gimnaziji. Prizidek je eno od ključnih del za razumevanje Ravnikarjeve arhitekture, saj pomeni zgoščen prikaz njegovih idej o arhitekturi, od urbanističnih (prehod med kompleksom in mestnim tkivom), preko konstrukcijskih (princip konzole, konstrukcija nad pritličjem in galerijami na štirih stebrih s po štirimi kraki), arhitekturnih (diagonalno členjena fasada, povezava nivojev in prostorov med sabo in z zunanjostjo), do oblikovanja interierja (strop, luči, ograje itd.) in detajlov.

Ogrožena pa je tudi vloga Trga v ljubljanski silhueti. Njegovo simbolno in vedutno prvenstvo naj bi preglasil novi kolos, Kolizej. Če pogledamo čez rob krožnika instant arhitekturne juhe, s katero nas pitajo njegovi zagovorniki, se nam odpro razsežnosti, ki nimajo dosti skupnega z arhitekturno formo in njeno "kvaliteto". Odločilno vprašanje je, na kakšen način je sodobno mesto del globalnega pretoka kapitala, ljudi, storitev in moči. Ljubljana kot polis, ali Ljubljana kot metapolis? Ali imamo možnost o tem vprašanju odločati, pravico razmišljati?

Iz splošne globalizacije in digitalizacije izhaja nova realnost, ki se ne ozira na stranske učinke. Ni pa res, da bi bila ta nova moč neodvisna od prostora. Udejanja se v prostoru, kot verige nakupovalnih centrov v obročih sala okrog mest, v izoblikovanih mestnih območjih pa v negiranju obstoječega in v iskanju šokantne izkoreninjenosti. S parcialno logiko polnjenja lastnega žepa sedimentiranemu mestu prazni in plitvi kulturno plast.

Za doktrino, ki podpira tak pristop, je značilna cenzura vseh plasti, ki se ne skladajo z njeno razlago nujnosti in neizbežnosti ekonomske in tržne logike. To se v "primeru Kolizej" manifestira v celostni podobi akcije kot marketinške kampanje, ki pokriva medije, vpliva na javno mnenje in izkorišča vse razpoložljive možnosti (predvsem denar, pa tudi popularno arhitekturo) za oblikovanje naklonjene klime. Poskrbeti je treba le, da bi produkt udejanjanja subjektivnega kapitalskega interesa postal objekt želje pri čim večjem segmentu ciljne publike in da bi dvomljivci ostali na margini. Pralni prašek ali kultura?

Kapital kroži v pravilnih krogih, pravi bizarna reklama na radiu. Res je, danes se svet segregira po kastah, glede na kapital, ki se ga v svojem kroženju dotakne. Slovenija in Ljubljana imata v tem pozicioniranju dobre karte in odprte možnosti. Ne smeta postati plen kapitala sumljivega porekla in izrazito špekulativnih namenov, ker bo od tega več škode kot koristi. Še zlasti pa ne smemo dopustiti neenakopravne tekme z neupoštevanjem pravil. Dilema, ali napredek s kršenjem pravnega reda ali sploh nobenega napredka, ki nam jo vsiljujejo v primeru Kolizej, je lažna. To, da nam nekateri očitajo, da smo provincialni frustriranci, če se zavzemamo za veljavnost pravnih in etičnih norm, pa je vsaj nenavadno, če že ne cinično. Kupili bomo to, za kar se bomo odločili, akviziterji gor ali dol.

In v razmerah, ko ne funkcionirajo institucije, se mora vključiti civilna družba, strokovna civilna družba še posebno. Ozavestiti mora kulturni sediment prostora in ga promovirati kot skupno vrednoto, lastnino in odgovornost. V času, ko v svetu izgubljajo pomen nekatere hierarhije, kot je nacionalnost, ga pridobivajo druge, ki so lahko sub- ali nadnacionalne. Tudi kritična kulturna drža je lahko globalna, v svojem aktivizmu se lahko povezuje. Najpomembnejši so široka komunikacija, odpiranje javne debate ter internacionalizacija delovanja, pri čemer so lahko v veliko pomoč mediji, pa internet in tudi javne prireditve, kot so razne akcije in okrogle mize. Objavljamo pismo z razmišljanjem o razsežnostih primera Kolizej, ki ga je napisal slovenski arhitekt nizozemskemu kolegu. Skozi takšne strategije lahko pridemo do bolj preciznih stališč in vrednotenj, tudi do, če hočete, učenja iz tujih napak. Ne gre za nasprotje med kozmopolitizmom in lokalnim, pač pa za globalnost kot seštevek mnogoterih lokalnosti.

Predlogi - dva varovalna in en razvojni

Prvi predlog je naslovljen na Ministrstvo za kulturo Republike Slovenije. Predlagamo, da se čim prej celostno zaščiti Ravnikarjevo delo. Kompleks Trg republike naj se kot celota, z vsemi kvalitetnimi prvinami - stavbami, interierji, ureditvami, pa tudi vedutami, čim prej proglasi za spomenik državnega pomena.

Drugi predlog je namenjen ohranitvi knjigarne DZS, ki ji neposredno grozi uničenje. Z uničenjem ne bi izgubili le enega od najlepših ambientov kompleksa (po izgubljenem interierju Ljubljanske banke), pač pa tudi programsko kontinuiteto Narodne čitalnice in knjigarne Nove založbe. Zato predlagamo, da se v knjigarni ustanovi informacijski center in knjigarna arhitekta Edvarda Ravnikarja. V njem bi bilo zbirališče arhitektov, umetnostnih zgodovinarjev, umetnikov. Na razpolago bi bile informacije, knjige in revije s tematiko arhitekture in umetnosti. Za vzdrževanje in najemnino bi v njem lahko delovala tudi kavarna. Knjigarno in center bi skupaj upravljale strokovne organizacije. Ustanovitev centra bi bila korak k ponovnemu povečanju pomena in vloge arhitekture v politiki mestne in državne oblasti.

Tretji predlog je razvojni predlog. Mesto Ljubljana in država Slovenija naj skupaj z lastniki posameznih objektov razpišeta javni, mednarodni, anketni urbanistično arhitekturni natečaj za ureditev kompleksa Trga republike. Natečaj bi moral biti razpisan hkrati z razglasitvijo kompleksa za spomenik državnega pomena. Spomeniškovarstvene smernice - strokovne podlage za razglasitev Đ bi morale biti del razpisnega gradiva. Poudarek naloge bi moral biti na programskih vsebinah kompleksa, parternih ureditvah, stičnih ambientih ter infrastrukturnih ureditvah in rešitvah.

Miha Dešman

editorial

future for the past

The present issue of the ab magazine is devoted to the central figure of Slovene contemporary architecture in the post-Second World War period ? architect, teacher and academic Edvard Ravnikar and his work. It deals with the genesis and the complex history of the creation of his architecture, focusing on the example of Trg Revolucije (Revolution Square), now called Trg Republike (Republic Square). The Square was created as a consciously-designed new city centre in dialogue with the historic town, and also as a symbolic and political centre of the nation and state.

Ever since Ravnikar's death in 1993, we have been waiting, and continue to wait, for a complete critical evaluation of his works, for an overview exhibition and monograph, for the permanent organisation of archives, for the complete protection of his works, and for his rightful positioning in the history of European architecture. True, both the interest in him and the awareness of his importance have been increasing in recent years. The scarce in-depth studies now in progress represent an introduction to a holistic treatment of this topic. Two of these studies are summarised in this issue of our magazine. The endeavours for his works to become ? as have Ple‹nik's in recent times ? well-known in the international expert and lay circles have been gaining ground. One of his most lyrical works ? the arrangement of the memorial complex to internees on the island of Rab ? was presented at the 9th International Architectural Exhibition in Venice in autumn 2004.

On the other hand, the fizis of his work has been endangered. It is especially sad, and symptomatic, that Trg Republike in Ljubljana has been imperilled. Just recently, the bank interior has been destroyed, and the passageway, cafŽs and parterre are in poor condition. Gradual devaluation of individual environments and, moreover, ideas on superimposing additional storeys on the two skyscrapers and the Maximarket store are unacceptable interventions to the integrity of the architectural whole.

The most topical case of the above, however, is the interior and facade of the DZS bookstore located in Ravnikar's annex to Ple‹nik's Ursuline Grammar School. This annex is one of his key works and helps us to understand Ravnikar's architecture, as it represents a condensed exposition of his ideas on architecture, from urban planning (the transition between the building complex and the urban tissue), through to construction (the console principle, the construction above the ground floor and the galleries on four pillars each with four legs), architecture (the facade broken down diagonally, the connection of levels and spaces between one another and with the exterior), all the way to the interior design (ceiling, lighting, railings, etc.), and details.

What is more, even the role of the Square in the Ljubljana skyline is threatened. Its symbolic primacy and vedutta pre-eminence is to be overshadowed by a new colossus, Kolizej. Looking over the brim of the plate full of instant architectural broth with which we are being fed by its advocates, we can see the horizons that do not have much in common with architectural form and its "quality". The decisive question here is in what manner the contemporary city is a part of the global flow of capital, people, services and powers. Ljubljana as polis, or Ljubljana as meta-polis? Do we get the chance to decide on this issue? Do we have the right to think about it? A new reality is emerging from the general globalisation and digitalisation, which takes no account of collateral effects. It is not true, however, that this new power is independent of space; it is being realised in space, both in the "fatty" tissue around the cities in the form of shopping centres, and in the shaped inner city areas in the form of negating the existing and seeking a shocking unrootedness. The partial logic of filling one's own pocket makes the sedimentary city's cultural layer increasingly empty and shallow.

Characteristic of the doctrine supporting such an approach is the censorship of all layers that do not conform to its explanation of the necessity and inevitability of economic and market logic. In the "Kolizej case" this is manifested in the overall image of the action as a marketing campaign covering the media, which influences public opinion and makes use of all available opportunities and resources (mainly money, but also popular architecture) in order to create a favourable climate for the idea. All that needs to be assured is that the product of the realisation of subjective capital interest becomes an object of desire with as large a segment of the target group as possible, and that the doubters remain marginalised. Washing powder or culture?

"The capital circulates in the right circles", says a bizarre radio commercial. It is a fact that the world today is being segregated by castes, by the capital it touches in its rotation. Slovenia and Ljubljana have a good hand of cards in this positioning, and thus open opportunities. They should not become easy prey to capital of suspicious origin and to expressly speculative intentions - they will bring with them more harm than good. We should especially stop unequal competition where rules are not taken into account. The dilemma as to whether there should be progress by breaching legal order or no progress at all, which is being imposed on us in the Kolizej case, is a false dilemma. It is at the least unusual, if not outright cynical, to be called provincial frustrated people because we stand for the validity of legal and ethical norms. We will buy what we decide, regardless of the door-to-door salespeople.

And when the institutions cease to function civil society must step in, especially professional civil society. Its members have to raise awareness of the cultural sediment of space and promote it as a common value, properly and responsibility. While certain hierarchies, such as nationality, are losing ground in the world, others are again gaining ground and these may be sub- or supranational. A critical cultural stance, too, can be global and can interconnect in its activism. The most important things now are broad communication, the opening of a public debate, and internationalisation of operation where the media can be of great help, as well as the internet and public events including various actions and round table discussions. This issue also features a letter by a Slovene architect written to a Dutch colleague, presenting his views about the scope of the Kolizej case. Strategies like this can help us to come to more precise positions and values, and even to learn from the mistakes of others, if you will. This is not just about the opposition between cosmopolitanism and the local, but more about the global as the sum of varied localities.

Proposals - two protective ones and a developmental one

The first proposal is addressed to the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Slovenia. We propose that Ravnikar's work be integrally protected. The Trg Republike complex as a whole with all its quality elements ? buildings, interiors, arrangements, and veduttas ? should be proclaimed a monument of national interest as soon as possible.

Our second proposal is aimed at preserving the DZS bookstore, which is now directly threatened. By ruining it, we would not only lose one of the most beautiful environments of the complex (after the destroyed Ljubljanska Banka interior), but also the programme continuity of the Preäernova Druiba bookstore. Therefore we propose that an information centre and bookstore dedicated to Edvard Ravnikar be established in this bookstore, which would serve as a gathering place for architects, art historians, and artists. It would make available information, books and magazines on the topic of architecture and art. In order to cover maintenance expenses and rent, it could also house a cafŽ. The bookstore and the centre would be managed by professional organisations. Establishing a centre would be a step towards a renewed increase in the importance and the role of architecture in the policies of both city and national authorities.

The third proposal is a developmental one: together with the owners of individual buildings, the City of Ljubljana and the Republic of Slovenia should organise a public, international, survey urban planning and architectural competition for the layout of the Trg Republike complex. This call for tenders should be published simultaneously with the proclamation of the complex as a monument of national interest. Monument protection guidelines, which would serve as a basis for the proclamation, should form part of the tender documentation. The task should focus on the programme contents of the complex, parterre layout and connection environments, as well as infrastructure layout and solutions.

Miha Dešman