številka / volume 201-202
december / december 2014
letnik / anno XLIV

Barje
The Moors
vsebina številke
table of contents
Miha Dešman Uvodnik: Barje
Introduction: The Moors
Vizije so 8
Jurij Kobe Študentska delavnica: Vstop v Krajinski park Ljubljansko barje, 2013/14
Fakulteta za arhitekturo Univerze v Ljubljani Mestni park Rakova Jelša
Naravovarstvo
Barbara Zupanc in sodelavci KP Ljubljansko barje Krajinski park Ljubljansko barje
Maja Simoneti, Urška Kranjc, Petra Vertelj Nared Varstvo krajine med načrtovanjem in rabo prostora: Primer Ljubljansko barje
Geologija
Tomaž Verbič Ljubljansko barje se pogreza in poseda
Kultura
Nadja Zgonik Tone Lapajne – kolonizator duhovne plasti krajine Ljubljanskega barja
Andrej Hrausky K novi sakralni arhitekturi – cerkev sv. Mihaela kot simbol razvoja Barja
Arhitekturna fotografija v svetu
Projekti
Tomaž in Dušan Stupar Koščeva opazovalnica ptic na Barju
Maja Simoneti, Urška Kranjc Krajina razvojni vir – primer Ljubljansko barje
ATELIERarhitekti Turistično-informativni center Barje / Črna vas Ljubljana
Projekti za Barje - pregled raziskovalnih in študentskih del
Recenzije
Kristina Dešman Recenzija knjige: Meta Kutin (ur.) Z menoj po mojem mestu
Svetloba
Tine Škrlj-Jakomin Svetloba
uvodnik

Prostor Ljubljane ima izrazito, geografsko in zgodovinsko pogojeno smer sever– jug, ki jo opisuje glavna cesta (cardo) Dunajska–Slovenska–Barjanska. Če se proti severu smer, ki poteka med Grajskim hribom in Tivolijem, nadaljuje naprej proti goram, se proti jugu potopi v barje. Pogled z Gradu proti severu se ustavi šele na Alpah, izpod katerih priteče Sava. Predstraža Alp je Šmarna gora z značilno podvojeno silhueto hrbta dvogrbe kamele, za njo pa se dvigajo beli vrhovi Kamniških. Proti jugu pa prestolnica meji na Ljubljansko barje, nad katerim gospoduje Krim. Za Krimom si lahko predstavljaš, da se pokrajina obrne in prične spuščati proti morju. Tako se proti severu prostor Ljubljane širi, odpira, proti jugu pa ustavlja, zapira. Vzpostavi se polarnost in napetost med mestom Ljubljana, pozitivom, in njegovim nasprotjem, (Ljubljanskim) barjem, negativom, globino. Le-ta predstavlja mehki, ženski pol, ki zbira vode kraških rek, preden se prelijejo preko praga Ljubljanskih vrat proti severu, proti Savi. Barje je že dvesto let izsušeno, simbolično pa je še vedno jezero, vodni element. To začutiš po tresenju tal, ko se sprehajaš po barjanskih travnikih, poslušaš ptice, opazuješ dvigajoče se meglice. Topografija barja spričo svoje ravnosti odpre nebo. Nebo je trdo, saj sloni na vencu gora in hribov, tla pa so mehka, občasno jih preplavi voda iz potokov in kanalov, ki prepredajo travnike in polja in se stekajo v široko in počasno strugo Ljubljanice. Ljubljanica je vodna os barja in mesta, tako rekoč njuna podzavest. Plečnik je pomen vode za mesto upodobil s cerkvijo sv. Mihaela v Črni vasi, ki jo je po vzoru koliščarjev dvignil na stebre. Prešeren je vanjo naselil povodnega moža.

Ljubljana ima proti Barju jasno in ostro mejo – južno obvoznico. Obvoznica je postavila rob, ki deluje kot rez. Do nje sega mesto, preko je nič. Neverjetno prazen prostor, puščava pred vrati mesta. Prostor, ki je razočaral, ko z izsušitvijo ni postal žitnica. Ki se ni hotel podrediti človeški racionalnosti in ki vedno znova najde načine, da se ji izmika. Prostor, kjer se je ustavil tudi čas. Ki je bil in je namenjen neurbanim vsebinam: kmetovanju, rekreaciji, tudi deponiji, odlaganju odpadkov. Prostor Barja, ki je pospešeno tonil v degradacijo, je pred kratkim postal zaščiten naravni park. Postavlja se vprašanje, kako iz mesta priti v ta park? Po vodi? Ja, to je zanesljivo najlepša pot. Iz mesta vozijo ladjice z izletniki vse do Vrhnike, možnosti za plovbo je še nešteto.

Po urbani osi? Ja, os Barjanske, ki se konča s priključkom na obvoznico, je letos dobila vstopni park v Barje, ki ga predstavljamo v tej številki. Poti, ki povezujejo vstopne točke, kraje in znamenitosti, premagujemo s kolesi, peš in s čolni, preko brvi in mostov, na hrbtu konja ali v balonu. Najlepše pa je Barje, kadar si na njem sam in čutiš njegovo samotnost. Zapuščenost v sebi nosi možnosti. Lepoto. Potencial je delno v sami zapuščenosti in ga prilastitev po navadi okrne. Kako oživiti samotarski poiesis Barja, kot ga s kolaži iz zemlje poustvarja Tone Lapajne? Kako ohraniti barjanske travnike, kjer na pomlad poženejo cvetlice skozi taleči se sneg?

In drugače, bolj urbanistično in politično: Kako Barje ponovno povezati z mestom? Kakšne vsebine razvijati? Kaj in kako ščititi, kaj spremeniti, kaj zasnovati na novo? Kaj pustiti pri miru? Je Barje možna alternativa hitrosti življenja v sodobnem mestu? Je Barje lahko eksperimentalni laboratorij za trajnostno urejanje in rabo prostora?

Na ta in druga vprašanja odgovarjajo prispevki v tej tematski številki.

Miha Dešman

editorial

The space of Ljubljana has a pronounced north-south course, a result of both geography and history, which is embodied in the main road (cardo), whose sections carry the names Dunajska, Slovenska, and Barjanska. Northbound, the course - guided along by the Castle on one side and park Tivoli on the other - leads on in the direction of the hills; towards the south, it sinks into the Ljubljana Moors. The view from the Castle extends all the way to the Alps, with the river Sava springing from beneath them. The Alps have an advance guard in the shape of Šmarna gora and its characteristic twin-hump camel silhouette, with the white peaks of Kamniške Alps peeking from behind. Towards the south, Ljubljana borders on the Moors, with Krim towering above them. One can imagine the landscape behind Krim taking a turn and starting a descent towards the sea. The space of Ljubljana thus widens and opens towards the north, and comes to a halt as it closes in towards the south. A polarity, a tension is established between the city of Ljubljana, the positive, and its counterpart, the (Ljubljana) Moors – the negative, the deepness. The latter represents the soft, female antipode which collects the waters from the karst rivers before they flow over the threshold of Ljubljana gates towards the north, towards the Sava. The Moors have been dried out for two hundred years, but symbolically, they are still a lake, the water element. You can feel it in the shaking of the ground as you walk through the meadows at the Moors, listen to the birds and watch the mists as they lift. The flatness of the topography of the Marshes has the effect of opening up the sky. The sky is hard because it leans on a range of mountains and hills, but the ground is soft, and it occasionally gets flooded by the water from the streams and canals which strew the meadows and the fields and feed into the wide and slow riverbed of the Ljubljanica. The Ljubljanica is the water axis of the Moors as well as of Ljubljana - it practically acts as their subconscious. Jože Plečnik paid tribute to the significance of the Moors for the city with the Church of St Michael, which he raised on piles, inspired by the prehistoric pile-dwellers. Prešeren made the Ljubljanica the home of the Waterman.

In the direction of the Moors, Ljubljana has a clear and abrupt boundary – the southern ring road. The ring road has introduced an edge which functions like a cut. The city extends right up to that spot; beyond, there is nothing. The emptiness of the space defies belief - a wasteland just outside the city gates. A space which disappointed when its drying out did not make it into a granary for Ljubljana. Which did not submit human rationality, which keeps finding new ways to elude it. Where even time stopped. Which was and continues to be designated for non-urban content: agriculture, recreation, but also waste disposal and processing. The space of the Moors, which was subject to rapid degradation, has recently been declared a protected natural park.

There is a dilemma as to how to get to the park from the city. Waterborne? Yes, that is indeed the nicest way. From the city, boats take day-trippers all the way to Vrhnika, and there are countless other possibilities for water travel. And if one were to go along the urban axis? Yes - this year, the axis of Barjanska Road, which terminates in a motorway access, was endowed with an entrance park into the Moors, which is presented in the issue. The paths linking the entry points, places, and sights, are negotiated by bicycle, on foot, by boat, via footbridges and bridges, on horseback, or by hot-air balloon.

But the Moors are at their most beautiful when you're there alone and you feel the seclusion. The state of abandonment bears potential. Beauty. In part, this potential lies in the abandonment itself; its appropriation usually results in adulteration. How to revive the solitary poiesis of the Moors, as recreated by Tone Lapajne with his soil collages? How to conserve the meadows of the Moors where in spring, flowers bloom right through the melting snow?

And furthermore - with our urbanistic and political hats back on -, how to reconnect the Moors with the city? What content to develop? What to conserve, and how; what to change, what to design from scratch? What to leave as it is? Do the Moors represent a possibility for an alternative speed of life in a contemporary city? Can the Moors serve as an experimental laboratory for a sustainable regulation and use of space?

These and other questions are addressed by the contributions in the issue.

Miha Dešman